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DPRG: Pain

Subject: DPRG: Pain
From: Ron Blue rcb5 at msn.com
Date: Mon Jan 12 14:08:29 CST 1998

>From COP theory:  more on pain

"Sensations and Perceptions:
Paradoxical integration is illustrated with the Thunberg thermal grill
illusion.  Using alternating tubes of warm and cold water to generate
contradictory stimulation individuals report intense pain.  Craig and
Bushnell (1994) suggest that the integration in the thalamic region of
the brain best explains this illusion.  The integration result from
the joining of two unmasked simple models of central disinhibition.
COP theory suggests that the firing of individual nerve cells would
create a unique wave function for a particular sensory system and
experience.  These sensory systems then create waves or wavelets.  A
wave generator for warm and a wave generator for cold with increasing
signals up to a maximum signal strength.  In the integrative systems
of the brain these wavelets would result in producing an integrative
opponent-processing wavelet.  This wavelet created by interaction and
multiple correlations of a rotational nature results in the perception
of pain.
Paradoxical integration is illustrated with taste.  By cooling
the tongue with ice, sweets will taste less sweet (Frankmann & Green,
1988).  The chemical explanation is that sweets when cold cause the
nerve cells to fire at a slower rate resulting in perceived less sweet
taste.  We would suggest correlational opponent-processing may be a
better explanation.
Saccharin, an artificial sweetener, tastes both sweet and bitter.  The
psychological report of people vary on the taste of saccharin.
Caffeine is a bitter tasting stimulant.  After exposure to caffeine,
the saccharin taste is increased for both sweet and bitter.  Yet,
caffeine has no effect on sweets and their taste (Schiffman,
Diaz, & Beeker, 1986).  This suggest an opponent-processing system of
sweet-bitter and paradoxical integration.  Bartoshuk (1993) research
suggest opponent-processing.  When one side of the tongue has been
paralyzed sweets will taste sweeter to the other side.  Bartoshuk
(1994) reported that miracle berries will cause acids to taste both
sweet and sour.  The explanation was believed to be peripheral.  The
glycoprotein on the miraculin molecule was believed to directly
stimulate sweet receptors.  Now that a central explanation has been
proposed by correlational opponent-processing Bartoshuk reported that
she really liked the possible explanation.  Using a gestalt pattern
and correlational opponent process the miraculin which is practically
tasteless might produce neural wavelet patterns what are unnoticed in
the brain.  This would produce opponent memory reverberating wavelets.
When the stimulus of acid (vinegar) is added to the miraculin wavelet
it causes a frequency modulation that is read as very sweet and sour.
This would be like phi phenomenon and the gestalt of perception.
The system of olfaction has been difficult to study.  Paradoxical
integration is illustrated through "olfactory compensation",
first reported by Zwaardemaker in 1900, in which two odors will cancel
each other out and block perception (Richardson & Zucco, 1989).
Further supporting COP theory evidence is suggested by MacLeod
and Laurent (1996) work for correlational opponent-processing via
wavelets for olfaction.  There have been many reports of oscillatory
synchronization for most sensory systems caused by evoking stimuli.
Odor evoked oscillations of 30 to 60 hertz in vertebrates and 20 to 30
hertz in insects.  Efforts to understand these events have not been
successful.  Neurons firing in specific response to an odor can be
blocked yet, the synchronization wave continues.
Correlational Opponent Processing suggest that the brain uses carrier
or reference wavelets for a particular function like olfaction.
The stimulus is translated into information overwritten on to the
reference wavelet.  Molecules would have a unique vibratory
characteristic that would stimulate olfactory nerves at ratio blending
and timing cycles.  Using entrainment the code for what a stimulus
means could be extracted from the reference frequency.  Olfactory
(inhibitory) after images should be observable."


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